Material & Methods


In this study a total of 83 dogs were used, out of these 33 were control dogs that have lived with the same owner since puppyhood. 30 were rehomed dogs, and the final 20 dogs were shelter dogs.

The unsolvable problem task

Memory test

Eye contact test

Sleep patterns and hair cortisol

These three groups were tested behaviourally with cognitive tests, sleep patterns were assessed with an activity collar and long term stress levels were assessed with measures of cortisol concentrations in hair.