Background & Aims



There is a growing interest in the scientific community for the response of animal populations to global warming. Increasing temperatures may imply difficulties for animals, like the reduction of food and water availability, or the spread of pathogens and invasive species that can compete for habitat and resources. Since behaviour is the most external indicator of animal responses to changes, assessing the effects of temperatures on animal activity is crucial in predicting responses to global warming. 

Moreover, in addition to the increasing temperatures, other stressors, like predator presence and human disturbance, may influence the behaviour of different species. 

In this study I analysed the effects of multiple potential stressors simultaneously. 

  • Analyse the direct effect of temperature on the temporal activity pattern of the three species in study (i.e., roe deer, fallow deer, and wild boar)
  • Assess possible changes in their activity patterns due to the relative effect of the environmental stressors (i.e., temperature, predator presence, and human disturbance)
  • Evaluate if one of those stressors has a stronger impact than the others on the study species