Picture by Kristoffer Lundgren.
  • Boldness and activity decreased after injections but did not differ dependently on octopamine manipulation.
  • Octopamine manipulation did not affect the initial fear response, but it disrupted the link with boldness.
  • Octopamine manipulation increased the freezing behaviour in crickets, resulting in sensitisation to the stimulus, i.e. crickets gradually increase their freezing behaviour over the repeated stimuli. Bolder individuals showed a stronger sensitisation to the repeated stimuli than shyer individuals.