In all the seasons, the wild boar was the most used prey by wolves, measured in three different measurements of prey use.

Relative occurence of the three wild ungulate species found in wolf scats over the study period.

GLM analysis showed increased use of wild boar over the three years and decreased use of fallow deer, except for in summer.

Hurlbert’s index of dietary niche breadth per season. A value of 1 represents maximum niche breadth and a very specialised species will have a value of 0.

Relative ungulate prey availability per season as percentage of individuals accumulated over all camera trap detections.

Seasonal variation of prey selection using relative occurrence. Left to right: wild boar, fallow deer and roe deer. Dashed lines show liberal selection and avoidance thresholds. Dotted lines show conservative selection and avoidance thresholds. 1 is maximum selection and – 1 is maximum avoidance.